Backend.AI Enterprise R2 is a platform that makes it easy to utilize virtualized compute resource clusters in a cloud or on-premises environment. Provides a convenient web-based GUI interface to access the Backend.AI server to utilize compute resources and manage user’s own compute environment, and provides pre-made images which enables immediate creation of compute sessions without the need by users to install separate programs. In addition, the container-based GPU virtualization technology of Backend.AI supports the efficient use of GPUs by flexibly dividing one physical GPU, so that multiple users can use it at the same time. Most of this works can be done with some mouse clicks and short typings, making it more intuitive to use.

Key Concepts

Diagram explaining key concepts
  • User: The user is the person who connects to Backend.AI and performs work. Users are divided into normal users and superadmins according to their privileges. While ordinary users can only perform tasks related to their computing sessions, superadmins perform almost all tasks throughout the system. A user belongs to one domain and can belong to multiple groups within a domain.
  • Compute session, container: An isolated virtual environment in which your code runs. It looks like a real Linux server with full user rights, and you can’t see other user’s session even if it’s running on the same server as your session. Backend.AI implements this virtual environment through a technology called containers. You can only create compute sessions within the domain and groups to which you belong.
  • Domain: This is the top layer for authority and resource control supported by Backend.AI. For companies or organizations, you can view domains as an affiliate and set up per-domain (or per-affiliate) permissions and resource policies. A user should belong to only one domain, and can create sessions or do some other jobs only in their own domain. A domain can have one or more domain admins, who can set policies within the domain or manage sessions. For example, if you set the total amount of resources available in a domain, the resources of all containers created by users in the domain cannot be greater than the amount set.
  • Groups: A hierarchy belonging to a domain. Multiple groups can exist in one domain. You can think of a group as a project unit. A user can belong to multiple groups (or projects) at the same time within a domain. Compute sessions must belong to one group, and users can only create sessions within their own groups. Domain admins can set policies or manage sessions for groups within the domain. For example, if you set the total amount of resources available within a group, the resources in all containers created by users in the group cannot be greater than the amount set.
  • Image: Each container has a pre-installed language-specific runtime and various computational frameworks. The state of such snapshots before they are executed is called an image. You can choose to run an image provided by the cluster admin, create your own image with the software you want to use, and ask the admin to register it.
  • Virtual Folder (vfolder): A “cloud” folder that is always accessible and mountable in a container on a per-user basis, regardless of which node the container runs on. After creating your own virtual folder, you can upload your own program code, data, etc. in advance, and mount it when you run the compute session to read from and write to it as if it is on your local disk.
  • Application service, service port: A feature that allows you to access various user applications (eg Jupyter Notebook, shell terminal, TensorBoard, etc.) running within the compute session. You do not need to know the container’s address and port number directly, but you can use the provided CLI client or GUI console to directly access the desired daemon of the session.
  • (GUI) Console: A GUI client that is served by web. You can use the service after logging in by specifying the address of the Backend.AI server and entering the user account information.
  • WSProxy: Proxy server which serves interactive apps, such as Jupyter Notebook and Terminal, that can be used in the GUI Console to communicate with the Backend.AI server through websocket, which converts general HTTP requests to and from the Console into websocket to deliver messages.
    • If the GUI Gonsole loses its connection to wsproxy or the wsproxy server is dead, it will not be possible to access services such as Jupyter Notebook and Terminal.

Backend.AI feature details

Category Feature
GPU support Container-level multi GPU
(Enterprise) Fractional GPU sharing & scaling
Multiple CUDA library version support (8.0 to 11.1)
Scaling On-premise installation on both bare-metal / VM
Hybrid cloud (on-premise + cloud)
Polycloud (multi-cloud federation)
Scheduling Unified scheduling & monitoring with GUI admin
Per-user (keypair) resource policy
(Enterprise) Per-group resource policy
Availability-slot based scheduling
Cluster partitioning Resource groups by H/W spec and usage
(Enterprise) Access control of users to resource group
(Enterprise) Access control of group to resource group
Security Sandboxing via hypervisor/container
Access logs for each user
Per session (container) logs
UI / UX GUI web interface
(Enterprise) Admin GUI web interface
Data management EFS, NFS, SMB and distributed file system (CephFS, GlusterFS, HDFS, etc)
(Enterprise) Dedicated flash-storage integration: PureStorage FlashBlade
Access control to data by user/group
Developer support Universal programming languages (Python, C/C++, etc)
Interactive web apps (Terminal, Jupyter, VSCode, etc)
For data scientists NGC (NVIDIA GPU CLoud) image integration
Popular ML libraries: TensorFlow, PyTorch, etc
Concurrent user of multiple versions of libraries
Periodic update of ML libraries
Customer support On-site installation (bare-metal / VM)
Configuration support (on-premise + cloud)
Admin/user training
Support for updating to latest version
Priority development and escalation
Custmoized container image / kernel or kernel repository

Guide for accessible menu by user role


  • pages with * mark are in Administration menu.
  • Features for Admin-only is listed in admin menu.
page \ role user admin
Summary O O
Sessions O O
Data & Storage O O
Statistics O O
Users* X O
Maintenance* X O
Information* X O
UserSettings O O